Friday, July 15, 2011
Sejarah Melayu Kedah-Perlis Myanmar
Kami bertolak dalam sekitar pukul 1 tengahari dari pusat imigresyen Thailand dengan bot tambang (150 baht pergi dan balik).
Air sungai Kra yang bercampur dengan air laut itu mengingatkan saya kembali perjalanan ke Bako Sarawak di Malaysia.
Setelah satu jam , kami sampai di seberang sempadan Myanmar (waktu Myanmar adalah satu jam terkemudian) dan membayar penalti USD 10 (atau 500Baht) kerana tidak ada rancangan untuk bermalam.
Ketibaan kami ditemui oleh seorang pemuda yang capek tangannya yang mengaku dia adalah orang Myanmar berketurunan Melayu. Memang beliau fasih berbahasa melayu dengan teloh melayu zaman sekarang.
Kalau di selidik rapi, walaupun rupa mereka agak seperti Mamak Penang atau bangladesh, pertuturan mereka adalah dalam loghat utara/Kedah/Perlis.
Untuk mengetahui dengan lebih lanjut lagi berkenaan Melayu di Myanmar:
Tanintharyi Division (Malay: Tanah Seri) historically included the entire Tanintharyi peninsula--today's Tanintharyi Division, Mon State and southern Kayin State. The peninsula region was part of Thaton-based Mon kingdoms before 1057 and part of King Anawrahta's Pagan Empire after 1057. Soon after the fall of Pagan in 1287, the area fell to the ascendant Thai kingdom of Sukhothai, and later its successor Ayutthaya kingdom. The region reverted back to Burmese fold in 1564 when King Bayinnaung of Taungoo Dynasty conquered all of Siam. A resurgent Ayutthaya kingdom reclaimed the southern half of Tanintharyi in 1593 and the entire peninsula in 1599. In 1614, King Anaukpetlun recovered the upper half of the coast to Dawei but failed to capture the rest. King Alaungpaya of Konbaung Dynasty recovered the entire region for the Burmese in 1758. The Burmese used Tanintharyi as a forward base to launch several invasions of Siam in the next three decades. The Siamese tried to retake Tanintharyi in 1792 but the Burmese repelled the attacks. Soon after the war ended, the British and the Siamese signed a boundary demarcation treaty on 20 June 1826, and another one in 1868. In the 18th century, Mergui was a port belonging to the Thai Ayutthaya Kingdom. It became an important trading center, especially for the Europeans, who would land at Mergui, travel upriver to Tanintharyi (Tenasserim) and then cross the mountains to reach Ayutthaya. The French officer Chevalier de Beauregard was made Governor of the city of Mergui after the revolt against the English there in July 1687. De Beauregard was named Governor by the king of Siam Narai, in the place of the English Samuel White. The French were then expelled from Mergui following the 1688 Siamese revolution. The British occupied the region after the First Anglo-Burmese War of (1824–1826). Rakhine and Tanintharyi were transferred to British rule. In conclusion, most of the Malays who reside in southern Myanmar and Southern Thailand are of Kedahan Malay's descent as Kedah once was a great power in Southeast Asia’s history. Its empire stretched from southern Myanmar division of Taninthayi to the northern states of Malaysia.
The majority of Kawthaung's population is made up of ethnic ThaiMuslim, ThaiBuddhism, Bamar and other ethnic minorities (e.g. Shan, Karen, and Mon). The Salone (Moken), Sea Gypsies, and Malays who are all called with the name, "Pashu" by locals. Burmese Chinese and Burmese Indians, who migrated to Kawthaung during colonial rule for tin mining and other industries also inhabit Kawthaung. Total population of Pashu is less than 100,000 as many of them migrated into Malaysia, Thailand and some Pashus migrated to other parts of the Burma, especially to Rangoon. The remaining Pashu were mainly inhibited in the southern most part, Kawthaung. Kawthaung (Burmese: ; MLCTS: kau. saung: mrui.; Thai: เกาะสอง; Malay: Pulodua) is in the southernmost part of Myanmar, located in Tanintharyi Division. During British rule in Burma between 1824 and 1948, it was known as Victoria Point. At 1859, a local Chinese and Thais group is settled at Maliwan, a place with numerous of flower trees called Maliwan in Thai Language. And at 1865, an Arab-Malay group led by Nayuda Ahmed, travelling and collecting sea products around Mergui Archipelago start to form a base and village at bay of Victoria Point. Burmese Malays concentrated in Bokpyin township and villages around it and few islands in the Bay of Bengal.
Language, culture and religion
These Malay ethnic group is related to the Kedahan Malay and the five southernmost provinces of Thailand (Thai Malays )which historically made up the old Malay Kingdom of Patani. The most common spoken language in that area is Burmese, followed by Thai and the Burmese Malays are bilingual and speak Burmese with the distinguished Myeik ( Beik ) accent like the locals as well as Malay language which is a member of the Austronesian family of languages. Malays of Burma speak the Kedah-Perlis dialect. The ethnic Malay have had a Muslim culture since the 15th century. Malay was the regional lingua franca, and Malay-based creole languages existed in the southern most part of Burma. In addition to the spoken Malay and some of their elderly members can read Jawi, Malay language written in Arabic Script. (Modern Malay is also written in Roman Script). Concentrated in Bokpyin township and villages around it and many sprawling islands in the Bay of Bengal . In Kawthaung the southernmost town of Myanmar, across Ranong in south Thailand , there are many mosques, including a large Pashu mosque. There are some Pashus who have intermarried with other Muslims in Burma. Some of their youths have taken up modern Burmese secular government education but a few of them are studying in Islamic religious schools. Burmese Malays are Sunni Muslims but as they are from Shafi Madhab or sect, slightly different from other Hanafi Madhab (sect) Muslims in Burma..
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_Malays
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